Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the major environmental issues in cities of many developing countries, including Nepal. Urban population growth and economic development lead to increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), hospital waste. The use of products that generate hazardous waste is another concern. Unmanaged disposal of medical wastes from hospitals and clinics also contribute to pollution and public health hazards in the localities. Therefore, SWM has become a major concern for the municipalities of Nepal. The Government of Nepal enacted the Solid Waste Management Act of 2011 effective from 15 June 2011 with the aim to manage the solid waste generate and preserve the health of public and environment as a whole.
The solid waste management in municipality generally get low priority due to high demand on other facilities. Public demand of facilities like road, water supply, etc. are high and municipality budget are also focus on the development of these infrastructures. This overlook on the need of waste management has create the environmental pollution which indirectly affect the development of society.
The major part of waste generated from municipalities are solid waste. Landfill site is the general solid waste management in most of the municipality in Nepal. But in recent year due to high concentration of population in cities and municipality area and also high increase in land value, the management of land for landfill is being challenge for municipality.
The practice of incinerator and landfill to manage the solid waste has many disadvantages. Burning of solid waste produce many toxic and greenhouse gases which pollute the environment. In this regard Nepal has put ban on municipal waste incinerators imposed through the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1999 is aimed at protecting its citizens from the harmful effects of dioxins. We frequently heard on the ban on disposal of solid waste on landfill by local, the nuisance gases and leachate is the major problems and in lack of proper management major impacts will be on land, air, water health of local public.